L.I.E.R. – French Test Protocol

In order to answer a request from the French authorities who wanted to consider and reduce the severity of accidents of motorcyclists hitting safety barriers, L.I.E.R. developed in 1998 a specific test procedure.

The procedure includes two tests, each involving the launch of a dummy fitted with measuring instrumentation from a sled in two different ways. The dummy is propelled towards the installed test item at 60km/h and 30˚ entrance angle with the configuration as follows.

Picture 3 – dummy entrance position

For the first test, the dummy is on its back, head forwards, with its longitudinal axis parallel to the launch trajectory. For the second test, the dummy is also on its back, but with its longitudinal axis parallel with the barrier. But in both cases the impact is on the post, there is no test in which the dummy hits between posts. The barrier must be installed in a stabilized soil.

The dummies used in the L.I.E.R. test procedure are made from an assembly of different dummy types: a Hybrid II thorax, limb and shoulders, with a Hybrid III head and neck, and a pedestrian pelvis, and wearing motorcyclist clothing and helmet.

Performance and Acceptance Criteria

The following biomechanical criteria are applied for acceptance of the system:



Head Injury Criterion (HIC36)

Neck Shearing Criterion

Neck Traction Criterion

Neck Compression Criterion


max 3300 N

max 3300 N

max 4000 N

Table 2 – L.I.E.R. biomechanical criteria

No dummy part must pass through the barrier line. One or more vehicle tests are added to the tests above to check that the overall system (new design or modified existing system) restrains a vehicle under the conditions required for certification.

When the motorcyclist protection system is added to an existing road safety system, the containment level for the other vehicles must be unchanged, the only vehicle test to be performed being the test with the heaviest vehicle. For a new design of safety barrier, the system must satisfy all the specifications from the European Standards EN 1317-1 and 2.